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Synonym for acetic acid esters of mono-and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472a)

Acetic acid
Organic carboxylic acid. Used to produce acetic acid esters of mono-and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472a)

Acid Value
A measure of the content of free fatty acids, for example in fat. Gives an indication of efficiency during refining, when the free fatty acids are removed and the acid value becomesvery low. It also indicates the degree of deterioration during storage, making it possible to evaluate thequality of frying oils (the lower the acid value, the better the quality).

Abbreviation for Acceptable Daily Intake and it is a measurementfor the products safeness. It is given in mg/ kg body weight, meaning a person should multiply the ADI with ones body weight to get the maximal dosage without causing health problems. The ADI is not set as of giving an immediately effect, but as a daily dosage over a persons normal living time. In most cases the average dosage over longertime is more important than the dosage from day to day.

Food products that can trigger severe allergic reactions. Theoretically almost any food may be implicated, but the most common are peanuts and tree nuts.

Animal oils & fats used for emulsifier production typically is lard, tallow but could also be fish oil.

Anticaking agent
Anticaking agents are preventing a powder to cake, this is e.g. when a product is sticky or is in contact with moisture. Anticaking agents are used in e.g. milk powder, salt, powder soups and many ingredients. The anticaking agents have E-numbers.

Antioxidants are preventing oxidation of a food. Fat containing products can get rancid when the fat in a product gets in contact with oxygen in the air. To prevent the products going bad due to oxygenation antioxidants can be added. Antioxidants can be vitamins as e.g. vitamin E, spices and natural extract as well as syntactically produced. Antioxidants are covered by E-numbers.

When fats and oil are getting in contact with water at high temperature e.g. at frying, the fat will spatter, to minimize this a anti spattering agent can be added to e.g. the frying margarine.

The American Oil Chemists’ Society

Bloom (small white spots on the surface of chocolate) is due to change in crystallisation during storage, and is basically only a matter of time before it happens. Improper storage (change in temperature) will speed up the bloom formation. Emulsifiers can be added to delay the formation of bloom, making the surface looks shiny and appetizing for longer.

BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) also known, as “Mad Cow Disease” is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that results from infection by an unconventional transmissible agent termed a prion. Transmission of the BSE agent to humans, is leading to what is called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and is believed to occur via ingestion of cattle products contaminated with the BSE agent

Synonym for citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472c)

Codex Alimentarius
The Codex Alimentarius Commission was created by FAO and WHO to develop food standards, guidelines and related texts such as codes of practice under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. 

Abbreviation of calcium stearoyl lactylate, synonym for calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E482)

Diacetyltartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, synonym for mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472e)

Abbreviation of Distilled Glycerol Monostearate (E471)

Molecule consiting of one glycerol and two fatty acids (E471)

European Food Emulsifier Manufacturing Association. EFEMA supports and promotes the general scientific, economic and technical interest of producers in Europe of food emulsifiers based on fats and their derivatives.

A typical emulsifier is produced from oil and glycerol. It enables two immisible phases to form a stable emulsion. It consists of a water-loving hydrophilic head and an oil-loving hydrophobic tail. The hydrophilic head is directed to the aqueous phase and the hydrophobic tail is directed to the oil phase. The emulsifier positions itself at the oil/water or air/water interface and reduces the surface tension and stabilizes in this way the emulsion. They also have the ability to interact with other food ingredients. In this way many functional roles in food are fulfilled, for example interaction with proteins or carbohydrates. The emulsifier may be an aerating agent, a starch complexing agent and/or crystallization inhibitor (read more in applications).

Emulsion is either an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion or a water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion. In the first oil is dispersed in a water phase (e.g. liquid cream or milk) and in the latter water is dispersed in the oil phase (e.g. margarine).

According to legislation, emulsifiers used in food within EU must always be mentioned on the label of the product. This is either done by writing the names of the emulsifiers or the corresponding E-numbers. The E-number is attached to a category of emulsifiers or other food additives and is part of an international code of recognition. What it shows, in fact, is that the ingredient in question has undergone stringent safety assessment according to a procedure laid down by the European Commission and the Scientific Committee for Food. Beside the evaluation of the regulation on their use, additives are also regulated on their purity and processing.

Reaction between an alcohol and an carboxylic acid. For example the production of fats through the reaction between glycerol and three free fatty acids.

European Union is an intergovernmental and supranational union of 25 democratic member states from the European continent.

EU Commision
The primary roles of the EU Commision are to propose and implement legislation, and to act as 'guardian of the treaties' which provide the legal basis for the EU.

Food And Agriculture organisation. FAO is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and, by these means, to eliminate hunger.

See triglyceride

Fatty acids
A carboxylic acid with an unbranched hydrocarbon chain having about 14-24 carbon atoms.

Federal Communications Commision and is an independent United States government agency, directly responsible to Congress.

Free fatty acids

See anticaking

Free fatty acids
Used to estimate the immediate quality of oils and fats and products containing oil or fat. A good quality oil has a low content of free (fatty) acids.

Free glycerol
Used to estimate the immediate quality of oils and fats and products containing oil or fat. A good quality oil has a low content of free glycerol. 

Free polyglycerol
Used as a quality parameter within PGMS

Glycerol lactopalmitate, synonym for lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472b)

Molecule containing three carbon atoms and three alcohol groups. Reaction with one, two or three fatty acid molecules results in a mono-, di- or triglycerides. 

Genetically Modified Organism see EU directive for further infomation

Glycerol monostearate, a mono- and diglyceride of fatty acids (E471)

Generally regarded as safe, typically used in the US. Can be self GRAS or given by FDA

Hardened vegetable fat
Industrial hardened or hydrogenated fat, either partially or fully hydrogenated. See hydrogenation.

See hydrogenation.

Heavy metals
Heavy metal refers to any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and is toxic or poisonous at low concentrations. Examples are mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenium (As), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb). As trace elements, some heavy metals (e.g. copper, selenium, zinc) are essential to maintain the metabolism of the human body. However, at higher concentrations they can lead to poisoning.

Hydrogen is added to carbon - carbon double bonds in unsaturated products in the presence of a catalyst. This results in a harder product (increased melting point). All double bonds can be converted to saturated bonds (fully hydrogenated) or part of the double bonds can be converted to saturated bonds (partially hydrogenated).

Hydrolysis is a reaction in which a molecule is split into two parts by reacting with a molecule of water. For example fat will be hydrolysed to glycerol and three fatty acids.

Hydroxyl value
A measure of the content of hydroxyl groups, for example in monoglyceride.

Iodine value
Iodine value (IV) is a measure of the total number of double bonds present in fats and oils. It is generally expressed in terms of "number of grams of iodine that will react with the double bonds in 100 grams of fats or oils". A high IV oil contains a greater number of double bonds than a low IV oil. Edible oils with high iodine value are usually less stable and more susceptible to oxidation.

The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) is an international scientific expert committee that is administered jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO and the World Health Organization WHO. Its work includes to evaluate the safety of food additives and the evaluation of contaminants, naturally occurring toxicants and residues of veterinary drugs in food

Kcal is an abbreviation for kilocalorie, which is a measurement for energy (for example for the amount of energy obtained from food). Many governments require food manufacturers to label the energy content of their products, to help consumers control their energy intake. 

Kilocalorie may be replaced for kilojoule to indicate amount of energy (for example obtained from food)

Synonym for lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472b)

Lactic acid
Organic hydroxy carboxylic acid. Used to produce lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (E472b) and sodium and calcium stearoyl-2-lactylates (E481 and E482)

Lecithin is a mixture of various phospholipids and the compositions depends on the origin of the lecithin. A major source of lecithin is soybean oil. Lecithin is admitted by the EU as a food additive and is designated by E number E322.

Although the word lipid is commonly used as a synonym to fat, the latter is a subgroup of triglyceride lipids. Non-glyceride lipids include for example steroids and waxes

Loss on drying
This is a test to determine the amount of moisture in a sample when the sample is dried under specific conditions.

Melting range
The range of temperature from the point at which the crystals start to liquefy to the point at which the entire sample is liquid.

Molecule consiting of one glycerol and one fatty acid (E471)

Fat that is liquid at room temperature

Partially hydrogenated fat
Part of the carbon - carbon double bonds are hydrogenated to saturated bonds (see hydrogenation).

See legislation

Polyglycerol ester, synonym for polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (E477)

Propylene glycol monostearate, synonym for propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids (E477)

Polyglycerol polyricinoleate  (E476)

Plastic vicosity
Indicates the flow characteristics of a liquid when it is moving rapidly.

Polymerised glycerol with an average of 3 glycerol units. Used to produce polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (E475) and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (E476)

Synonym for polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester. Depending on the fatty acid chain different products are obtained (E 432 - E436). For example polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate is polysorbate 20 (E432).

Molecule containing three carbon atoms and two alcohol groups. Reaction with fatty acid molecules results propane-1,2-diol ester of fatty acids (477).

Puff pastry
Puff pastry is a light, flaky pastry made from dough of the same name. The dough is also called puff paste and contains several layers of puff pastry margarine, causing the pastry to "puff out" during baking.

Quantum satis
No maximum amount of additive is specified. However, the additives must be used according to good manufacturing practice at a level not higher than is necessary to achieve the desired effect and not to mislead the consumer.

Recombined milk
Milk made from powder and water

Refractive index
Refractive index is a physical property that is related to the physical structure of the liquid sample through which light is passing. It is temperature dependent on the temperature and usually given at 20 °C.

Reichert-Meissl value
A method to determine the proportion of volatile water-soluble fatty acids present in fats (e.g. butter). It is expressed as the milliliters of 0.1 N alkali required to neutralize the acids obtained from five grams of fat by a specified method of saponification and distillation.

Residue on ignition
Test to measure the weight of a residual substance (inorganic matter such as salts) when sulfuric acid is added to the sample and ignited.

Saponification value
The saponification value is a measure of the free and esterified acids present in fats and fatty acid esters

The Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) performs evaluations at the request of the European Commission on food additives. Most SCF members are responsible for food safety in their own countries and are independent of the Commission.

Selectively hydrogenated fat
Selected carbon - carbon double bonds are hydrogenated to saturated bonds (see hydrogenation).

Self emulsifiying
Self emulsifying oils form emulsions almost spontaneously when mixed with water.

Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods. Shortening has a has 100% fat content, compared to 80% for butter and margarine.

Abbreviation of sorbitan monolaurate (E493)

Abbreviation of sorbitan monooleate (494)

Abbreviation of sorbitan monopalmitate (495)

Abbreviation of sorbitan monostearate (E491)

A mixture of sodium salts of long-chain fatty acids

Synonym for sorbitan esters (E491 - E495)

The presence of water in margarine will cause spattering during frying

Abbreviation of sodium stearoyl lactylate, synonym of sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (E481)

An emulsifier is added to water and oil mixture to prevent separation; the emulsifier stabilises the emulsion.

Starch complexing
Monoglycerides are able to form a complex with starch in dough, which results in a decrease in rate of staling (and an increase in crumb firmness is obtained).

Abbreviation of sorbitan tristeatrate (E492)

Sulfated ash
This standard describes the determination of sulfated ash content (sometimes called residue-on-ignition) of organic materials by thermogravimetry. The method converts common metals found in organic materials (such as sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, zinc) into their sulfate salts permitting estimation of their total content as sulfates or oxides.

The formation of a product starting from simpeler compounds or elements.

Trans fatty acids
Unsaturated fatty acid in which one or more double bonds are in the trans configuration (in opposition to the cis fatty acids found in most fats and oils). Found in body and milk fat from ruminants (e.g. butter) and is produced by partial hydrogenation of fats and oils. Health aspects of trans fatty acids have given rise to concerned discussions recently but no scientific conclusions have been drawn.

Triglycerides are esters of fatty acids and glycerol.

Synonym for polyoxyethylene sorbitan fatty acid ester (E432 - E436), see polysorbate.

Unsaponifiable matter
Non-fat material other than water

The term "vegetable" is related to oils and fats. A vegetable oil means that it is produced from plants, from i.e.seeds (rapeseed, sunflower), grains (rice, corn) or fruit (olive).

Viscosity describes a fluid's internal resistance to flow. It is commonly perceived as "thickness", or resistance to pouring.

Water content
The amount of moisture that a products contains.

World Health Organisation. The WHO is the United Nations specialized agency for health. WHO's objective, as set out in its Constitution, is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.

World Trade Organisation. The WTO aims to increase international trade by promoting lower trade barriers and providing a platform for the negotiation of trade and to resolve disputes between member nations, when they arise. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.

Yield value
Yield point indicates the flow characteristics when it is moving very slowly or at rest

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